Time being a precious commodity for all of us, regaining control of our health has never been more important. Sometimes we are so busy with our everyday lives that we forget to look after ourselves especially when it comes to managing our health. Much of the work we can do starts at home.

We are what we eat. 

It is not about a single meal; it is about a balanced food choice over time that will make a difference. The food we eat can give our body the nutrients it need, make us feel good and protect our long-term health and well-being. The foods we choose are important, but so is the amount we eat. The number of kilo-joules (calories) we eat versus how many we burn by being physically active is one of the keys to keeping the body weight in check. Lots of “healthy foods” can have high levels of hidden salt and sugar we may need to watch out for. Aim for a balanced diet that includes all the main food groups, which has both physical and psychological benefits. When making healthy food choices, you are doing something positive for yourself and this can raise your self-esteem and improves mental health.

Balance is key when it comes to food and health. Eating well and staying healthy is a balancing act that takes effort and practice. Balance your weight by matching the food you eat with the physical activity you do. Energy we take in from what we eat and drink is measured in kilo-joules (KJ) and the number of kilo-joules needed is different for everyone. Balance the food you eat by eating mostly healthy foods your body needs. Make an effort to choose healthier foods more often to get the balance right.

Variety is the spice of life, and it’s certainly an important goal when it comes to eating well. Enjoy foods from healthy food groups every day to give your body the nutrients it needs. It is also good to enjoy a variety of different foods from within the food groups themselves to keep meals interesting and to give you a broad range of nutritional benefits. For most people, a healthy diet is high in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and lean protein. Most people should also have some healthy fats, such as olive oil. Ask your HealthySpan consultant on what diet is right for you.

Think about drinks as drinks count: Choose those which can add nutrients (such as calcium from milk) and avoid or reduce those that just add kilo-joules we don’t need (such as sugar-sweetened drinks). Less sugar, more water.

Water is best, and drinking water is a healthy habit for the whole family.  Avoid alcohol as no amount of alcohol is good for your health. Taking charge of your health is something you can do at any age, and can be as easy as starting your day off with a glass of water. Water first thing in the morning will also help re-hydrate you and will flush out toxins, leaving you feeling refreshed and energized to tackle the day ahead.

Stress – High levels of stress can lead to a number of serious health problems, so if you have a lot of stress in life, we strongly recommend reducing it. Managing your stress can be a gradual process. Introducing regular exercise to your lifestyle is a good first step, and trying to make more time for yourself can help, too. Incorporating a little exercise into your daily routine can reap countless benefits, even if it’s something as simple as walking.

Get enough rest.

Adequate sleep is a must for good health and helps in reducing stress and maintaining your overall health. Chronic sleep deprivation raises the odds for heart disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, and many other sicknesses. Driving while sleepy is just as bad as driving drunk. If you don’t usually wake up feeling refreshed, try slipping into bed 15 minutes earlier every week until you do. Seven to eight hours a night is the average amount an adult needs to reboot both mind and body.

Mental health is just as important as physical health, so make sure to take time for yourself. Make time for a 20-minute bath before bed, which can help you feel more relaxed and better equipped to deal with the stresses of day-to-day life.

It is always beneficial for individuals to communicate, with friends, family members rather than distancing and getting slaved to hand held devices. Socializing is very important to manage and reduce stress. Stay in touch with family and friends. Be involved in your community. Maintain a positive attitude and do things that make you happy. Keep your curiosity alive. Lifelong learning is beneficial to your health.

Don’t do it alone. Whatever your health goals are, it will be far easier to reach them if someone has your back. That might mean finding an exercise buddy who meets you at the gym, asking a friend to go with you, or simply confiding in someone you trust about your current struggles so they can cheer you on along the way.


Move more; sit less, that’s the physical activity guidelines in a nutshell

Adding moderate exercise into your daily life is not only good for mind and body, it can also be a great way to socialise and see friends. Choose an exercise that you enjoy and it is always beneficial to exercise with a friend or listen to music. Even moderate exercise has many benefits including helping you sleep better, boosting your energy and improving your mental, as well as physical, well-being. If you’re trying to reach a healthy weight, exercise will help. Note that any movement is better than nothing

The best approach is to start slowly and build up. Walking, swimming, dancing and yoga are all good ways to get moving and improve strength, stamina and flexibility. Few surveys have revealed that walking is the most popular form of exercise undertaken a few times a week .You’re actually getting, probably, 95% or more of the benefits when you’re walking as compared to jogging.

Be active through moderate exercise at least 30 minutes a day, five days a week. For instance, take a brisk walk. Once you reach that goal, add some strength exercises a few days each week. These build muscles. Also add some stretching exercises, these help you stay limber.

Few Keys to Good Health

Brush your teeth at least twice a day with soft or medium bristled toothbrush (once u wake up and before going to bed)

Stay up to date on vaccines. Grownups need shots, too. You should get a flu shot every year. Immunisation protects by helping to control serious infectious diseases.

Wash your hands. It’s one of the easiest and most effective ways to avoid catching whatever contagious bugs are going around. The key is to be thorough: After you lather up with soap, scrub your palms, the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails for at least 20 seconds

Give your skin access to healthy dose of the sun’s rays and you are likely to experience some tangible benefits immediately like increased Vitamin D, improved mood, higher quality sleep, stronger bones, lower blood pressure

Limit alcohol drinking. It’s true that moderate amounts of alcohol have been tied to some health benefits, like a lower risk of heart disease, but there are also serious downsides to drinking, such as a higher risk of cancer and liver disease. So you shouldn’t start drinking for the sake of good health.

Steer clear of smoke. Smoking doesn’t just hurt your lungs. It harms almost every organ in your body, making you a more likely target for cancer, heart disease, and other serious illnesses. Second-hand smoke is dangerous, too, and there’s no amount that’s “safe.” If you live with a smoker, support them in quitting or at least ask them to take it outside

Take baby steps.

It’s tempting to overhaul entire lifestyle at once. But tackling too many health goals at once often backfires because change can be hard. To better your odds of getting and staying healthier, make a series of small changes and work your way up to a bigger end game. For instance, if you’d like to eat a more nutritious diet, focus on breakfast. Once you get used to that, think about how to improve your lunch menu.

Healthy habits can help you have a long, healthy and happier life.


Stress is an inevitable part of life. Nearly seventy percent of adults experience stress or anxiety daily, and it interferes at least moderately with their lives. It’s more or less impossible to eliminate stress, but you can learn to manage it, and most people usually do.


Stress!! – We all experience it in our lives. The vast majority of health problems are caused or influenced by stress. It is important to understand how stress affects your body and learn effective stress management techniques to make stress work for you rather than against you.

Effective stress management helps you break the hold stress has on your life, so you can be happier, healthier, and more productive. Managing stress is all about taking charge: taking charge of your emotions, your thoughts, your environment, your schedule, and the way you deal with problems. The ultimate goal is a balanced life, with time for work, relationships, relaxation, and fun – plus the resilience to hold up under pressure and meet challenges head on.

Positive Self-Talk

We talk to ourselves all the times. Sometimes we talk out loud but usually we do it in our heads. Self-talk can be positive or negative. Negative self-talk increases stress. Positive self-talk can help you calm down and control stress. With practice, you can learn to shift negative thoughts to positive ones.

For example:

Negative to Positive

I am always late – I reach on time always

I am not good at this – I will do the best I can

I can’t believe I messed it up – I am human, and we all make mistakes. I can fix it

Everything is going wrong – I can handle this, I need to take one step at a time

Make a note of the talk that happens in your mind and if it is negative then reverse it with positive talks. To really make it work, practice positive self-talk every day — in the car, at your desk, before you go to bed or whenever you notice negative thoughts. Teach it to kids, it will make wonders to them.

Emergency Stress busters

Emergency stress busters are actions to help you defuse stress in the moment. You may need different stress busters for different situations, and sometimes it helps to combine them. Some ideas:

  1. Count to 10 before you speak or react.
  2. Take a few slow, deep breaths until you feel your body un-clench a bit.
  3. Go for a walk, even if it’s a small walk. It can help break the tension and give you a chance to think things through.
  4. Try a quick meditation or prayer to get some perspective.
  5. If it’s not urgent, sleep on it and respond tomorrow. This works especially well for stressful emails and social media trolls.
  6. Walk away from the situation for a while and handle it later once things have calmed down.
  7. Break down big problems into smaller parts. Take one step at a time, instead of trying to tackle everything at once.
  8. Turn on some music or an inspirational podcast/video
  9. Spend some time with pet animal, talk to a loved one or close friend
  10. Work out or do something active. Exercise is a great antidote for stress.

Unhealthy ways of coping with stress

These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more damage in the long run:

  1. Smoking
  2. Drinking alcohol
  3. Overeating or under eating
  4. Spending out time for hours in front of the TV or computer
  5. Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities
  6. Using pills or drugs to relax
  7. Sleeping too much
  8. Procrastinating
  9. Filling up every minute of the day to avoid facing problems
  10. Taking out your stress on others

Learning healthier ways to manage stress

If your methods of coping with stress aren’t contributing to your greater emotional and physical health, it’s time to find healthier ones. There are many healthy ways to manage and cope with stress, but they all require change. You can either change the situation or change your reaction.

Since everyone has a unique response to stress, there is no “one size fits all” solution to manage it. No single method works for everyone or in every situation, so experiment with different techniques and strategies. Focus on what makes you feel calm and in control.

#1: Avoid unnecessary stress

Not all stress can be avoided, and it’s not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be addressed. You may be surprised, however, by the number of stressors in your life that you can eliminate.

  1. Learn how to say “no”
  2. Avoid people who stress you out
  3. Take control of your environment
  4. Avoid hot-button topics
  5. Pare down your to-do list
#2: Alter the situation

If you can’t avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Figure out what you can do to change things, so the problem doesn’t present itself in the future. Often, this involves changing the way you communicate and operate in your daily life.

  1. Express your feelings instead of bottling them up.
  2. Be willing to compromise.
  3. Be more assertive.
  4. Manage your time better.
#3: Adapt to the stressor

If you can’t change the stressor, change yourself. You can adapt to stressful situations and regain your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude.

  1. Re-frame problems.
  2. Look at the big picture.
  3. Adjust your standards.
  4. Focus on the positive.
  5. Adjust Your Attitude
#4: Accept the things you can’t change

Some sources of stress are unavoidable. You can’t prevent or change stressors such as the death of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. In such cases, the best way to cope with stress is to accept things as they are. Acceptance may be difficult, but in the long run, it’s easier than railing against a situation you can’t change.

  1. Don’t try to control the uncontrollable.
  2. Look for the upside.
  3. Share your feelings.
  4. Learn to forgive and forget.
#5: Make time for fun and relaxation

Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in your life by nurturing yourself. If you regularly make time for fun and relaxation, you’ll be in a better place to handle life’s stressors when they inevitably come.

Don’t get so caught up in the hustle and bustle of life that you forget to take care of your own needs. Nurturing yourself is a necessity, not a luxury.

  1. Set aside relaxation time.
  2. Connect with others.
  3. Do something you enjoy every day.
  4. Keep your sense of humour.
  5. Learn the relaxation response.

You can control your stress levels with relaxation techniques that evoke the body’s relaxation response, a state of restfulness that is the opposite of the stress response. Regularly practicing these techniques will build your physical and emotional resilience, heal your body, and boost your overall feelings of joy and equanimity.

#6: Adopt a healthy lifestyle

You can increase your resistance to stress by strengthening your physical health.

  1. Exercise regularly.
  2. Eat a healthy diet.
  3. Reduce caffeine and sugar.
  4. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs.
  5. Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body.


Sleep was once considered an inactive, or passive, state in which both the body and the brain “turned off” to rest and recuperate from the day’s waking activities. The brain goes through characteristic patterns of activity throughout each period of sleep, and that it is sometimes more active when we’re asleep than when we’re awake. Understanding these patterns and the factors that affect them may help in making choices that will lead to better quality sleep.

Sleep is an important part of your daily routine, most of you spend about one-third of your time doing it. Quality sleep and getting enough of it at the right times is as essential for survival as food and water.

Sleep is important to a number of brain functions, including how nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other. In fact, your brain and body stay remarkably active while you sleep.  Sleep plays a housekeeping role that removes toxins in your brain that build up while you are awake.

Sleep is a complex and dynamic process. Everyone needs sleep, without sleep you can’t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, and it’s harder to concentrate and respond quickly.

Sleep affects almost every type of tissue and system in the body – from the brain, heart, and lungs to metabolism, immune function, mood, and disease resistance.  A chronic lack of sleep, or getting poor quality sleep, increases the risk of disorders including high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and obesity.

Why is sleep important? 

Sleep is crucial for many reasons. A good night’s sleep:

  • regulates the release of hormones that control appetite, metabolism, growth, and healing
  • boosts brain function, concentration, focus, and productivity
  • reduces risk for heart disease and stroke
  • helps with weight management
  • maintains immune system
  • lowers risk of chronic health conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure
  • improves athletic performance, reaction time, and speed
  • lowers risk of depression

Sleep Stages

There are two basic types of sleep:  Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep (which has three different stages).  Each is linked to specific brain waves and neuronal activity.  A sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes, and during that time you cycle through all stages of non-REM and REM sleep several times during a typical night, with increasingly longer, deeper REM periods occurring toward morning.

Stage 1 non-REM sleep is the changeover from wakefulness to sleep.  During this short period (lasting several minutes) of relatively light sleep, heartbeat, breathing, and eye movements slow, and muscles relax with occasional twitches.  Brain waves also begin to slow from their daytime wakefulness patterns.

Stage 2 non-REM sleep is a period of light sleep before body enters deeper sleep.  Heartbeat and breathing slows, and muscles relax even further.  Body temperature drops and eye movements stop.  Brain wave activity slows but is marked by brief bursts of electrical activity.  You spend more of your repeated sleep cycles in stage 2 sleep than in other sleep stages.

Stage 3 non-REM sleep is the period of deep sleep that body needs to feel refreshed in the morning.  It occurs in longer periods during the first half of the night.  Heartbeat and breathing slow to their lowest levels during this sleep pattern.  Muscles are relaxed and it may be difficult to awaken you.  Brain waves become even slower.

REM sleep first occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep. Eyes move rapidly from side to side behind closed eyelids.  Mixed frequency brain wave activity becomes closer to that seen in wakefulness.  Breathing becomes faster and irregular, heart rate and blood pressure increase to near waking levels.  Most of dreaming occurs during REM sleep, although some can also occur in non-REM sleep. Arm and leg muscles become temporarily paralyzed, preventing from acting out your dreams (Other important muscles, such as our heart and diaphragm, continue to function normally).  As you age, you sleep less of your time in REM sleep.  Memory consolidation most likely requires both non-REM and REM sleep.

Sleep mechanisms

Two internal biological mechanisms – Circadian rhythm and Homeostasis – work together to regulate when body is awake and sleep.

Circadian rhythms direct a wide variety of functions from daily fluctuations in wakefulness to body temperature, metabolism, and the release of hormones. They control timing of sleep and cause sleepiness at night and tendency to wake in the morning without an alarm.  Body’s biological clock is based on a roughly 24-hour day, controls most circadian rhythms.  Circadian rhythms synchronize with environmental cues (light, temperature) about the actual time of day, but they continue even in the absence of cues.

Sleep-wake Homeostasis keeps track of your need for sleep. The homeostatic sleep drive reminds the body to sleep after a certain time and regulates sleep intensity. This sleep drive gets stronger every hour you are awake and causes you to sleep longer and more deeper after a period of sleep deprivation.

Factors that influence your sleep-wake needs include medical conditions, medications, stress, sleep environment, and what you eat and drink. Perhaps the greatest influence is the exposure to light.  Specialized cells in the retinas of your eyes process light and tell the brain whether it is day or night and can advance or delay sleep-wake cycle. Exposure to light can make it difficult to fall asleep and return to sleep when awakened.

Night shift workers often have trouble falling asleep when they go to bed, and also have trouble staying awake at work because their natural circadian rhythm and sleep-wake cycle is disrupted. In the case of jet lag, circadian rhythms become out of sync with the time of day when people fly to a different time zone, creating a mismatch between their internal clock and the actual clock.

What is a Sleep Cycle?

A sleep cycle is the progression through the various stages of NREM sleep to REM sleep before beginning the progression again with NREM sleep. Typically, a person would begin a sleep cycle every 90-120 minutes resulting in four to five cycles per sleep time, or hours spent asleep.

One does not go straight from deep sleep to REM sleep, however a sleep cycle progress through the stages of non-REM sleep from light to deep sleep, then reverse back from deep sleep to light sleep, ending with time in REM sleep before starting over in light sleep again.

For a majority of people, a sleep cycle begins with a short period of Stage 1 sleep whereby the body begins to relax and a drowsy state occurs with slow rolling eye movements. Though arousals or awakenings are prevalent, Stage 1 is important as it allows for the body to enter Stage 2; the first quantifiable stages of NREM sleep.

Stage 2 occurs for longer periods than Stage 1. For most, Stage 2 sleep comprises approximately 40-60% of total sleep time.

Moving through the sleep cycle, Stage 3 is most often found next in the progression. This restorative stage does not last as long as Stage 2, lasting between 5-15% of total time asleep for most adults. For children and adolescents Stage 3 is much higher in duration.

REM can occur at time during the sleep cycle, but on average it begins 90 minutes following sleep onset and is short in duration as it is the first REM period of the night. Following REM, the process resumes starting with periods of Stage 1, 2 & 3 intermixed before returning to REM again for longer periods of time as sleep time continues.

How long is a sleep cycle? The first sleep cycle takes about 90 minutes. After that, they average between 100 to 120 minutes. Typically, an individual will go through four to five sleep cycles a night.

What Is Deep Sleep?

Deep sleep occurs in Stage 3 of NREM sleep. Brain waves during Stage 3 are called delta waves due to the slow speed and large amplitude. Of all of the sleep stages, Stage 3 is the most restorative and the sleep stage least likely to be affected by external stimuli.

Waking a person from deep sleep can be difficult. Following a period of sleep deprivation, a person experiences extensive time in Stage 3 sleep. Parasomnias such as sleep walking sleep talking, night terrors and bedwetting can occur. (There is muscle activity, that’s how people can talk or kick in their sleep!)

Deep sleep reduces sleep drive, and provides the most restorative sleep of all the sleep stages. This is why even after a short nap during the day; you’re still able to fall asleep at night. But if the is nap long enough to fall into deep sleep, then there will be more difficulty falling asleep at night because of reduced need for sleep.

During deep sleep, human growth hormone is released and restores your body and muscles from the stresses of the day. Immune system also restores itself. Much less is known about deep sleep than REM sleep. It may be during this stage that the brain also refreshes itself for new learning the following day.

How Much Sleep Do Body Need?

Need for sleep and sleep patterns change as you age, but this varies significantly across individuals of the same age.  There is no magic “number of sleep hours” that works for everybody of the same age. Babies initially sleep as much as 16 to 18 hours per day, which may boost growth and development (especially of the brain).School-age children and teens on average need about 9.5 hours of sleep per night.  Most adults need 6-9 hours of sleep a night, but after age 60, nighttime sleep tends to be shorter, lighter, and interrupted by multiple awakenings.  Elderly people are also more likely to take medications that interfere with sleep.

In general, people are getting less sleep than they need due to longer work hours and the availability of round-the-clock entertainment and other activities.

Many people feel they can “catch up” on missed sleep during the weekend but, depending on how sleep-deprived they are, sleeping longer on the weekends may not be adequate.

Why we need to get up when the alarm rings

Getting a good night’s sleep is important for productivity, but how you wake up is just as important as how you sleep. Not many would be aware that hitting snooze button has negative impact on brain function and productivity that can last up to four hours. As mentioned, we sleep in cycles that take up to 90 to 120 minutes to complete. About two hours before you wake up, your body starts to slowly prepare to wake up. When your alarm rings, your body is in wakeup mode. If you hit the snooze button and drift back to sleep, you force your brain to start a new sleep cycle that is 90 to 120 minutes long. When the “snooze” alarm goes off 10 minutes later, the cortical region of your brain, which is responsible for decision making, attention, alertness and self-control, is still in sleep cycle. It won’t be able to snap awake; it needs 80 more minutes to finish what that snooze button has started.

It can take up to four hours for this “sleep inertia” condition to wear off and for cognitive functions to return to full capacity, that’s why you feel so darn groggy when you get up after hitting the snooze. It’s not because you didn’t get enough sleep. It’s because once snooze button is hit, a new sleep cycle started and then got interrupted again.

Tips for better sleep

To improve sleep health, consider the following tips.

During the day

  • Exercise regularly, but try to schedule your workouts at least a few hours before you go to sleep. Exercising too close to bedtime may lead to interrupted sleep.
  • Increase your exposure to sunlight or bright lights during the day. This can help maintain your body’s circadian rhythms, which affect your sleep-wake cycle.
  • Try not to take long naps, especially late in the afternoon.
  • Try to wake up at the same time each day.

Before bed

  • Limit alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine in the evening. These substances have the potential to interrupt your sleep, or make it difficult to fall asleep.
  • Switch off electronics at least 30 minutes before bedtime. The light from these devices can stimulate your brain and make it harder to fall asleep.
  • Get into the habit of a relaxing routine before bedtime, like taking a warm bath or listening to soothing music.
  • Turn down the lights shortly before bedtime to help brain understand that it’s time to sleep.

In bed

  • Avoid looking at screens like the TV, laptop, or phone once you’re in bed.
  • Read a book or listen to white noise to help relax once in bed.
  • Close your eyes, relax your muscles, and focus on steady breathing.
  • If unable to fall asleep, get out of bed and move to another room. Read a book or listen to music until you start feeling tired, then go back to bed.

A good night’s sleep is essential to good health. Ideally, only wake up at the end of your sleep cycle, which is when you’re likely to feel the most rested.

Sign up for our newsletter and special offers

    By subscribing you agree to receive our newsletter and related offers

    Accreditation | Recognition

    Dun & Bradstreet, headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, offers information on commercial credit as well as reports on businesses. Most notably, it is recognizable for its Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS numbers); these generate business information reports for companies around the globe. Click here to view listing.

    Bisnode is a company that offers decision support in the form of digital business, marketing and credit information. Founded in 1989, Bisnode is now a Dun & Bradstreet company. Bisnode is present in 19 European countries and has its headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. Click here to view listing.

    Disclaimer: Content of this website is for information purposes only. Some of the images/videos could be solely for representation purposes. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles and other content. No content on this site or on any of HealthySpan’s social media handles, regardless of date, including but not limited to, live fitness sessions etc., should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor, other qualified clinician or a certified fitness trainer. HealthySpan Wellness does not claim to treat any disease nor does it claim that any organic nutrition or any other aspects narrated can do so. Appropriate lifestyle habit modifications are not a substitute for medical treatment. However, HealthySpan Wellness believes lifestyle disorders viz. obesity or other obesity-related disorders can be effectively managed by positive changes to lifestyle habits, viz., diet, nutrition, exercise, sleep, developing a positive mental attitude. No one can guarantee different individuals will have same results. Individual experiences with the wellness programs may vary. Please read ‘Terms and conditions of use’ and ‘Privacy policy’ for further information.


    Lifestyle disorders are in epidemic proportions now. It is time, we recognize this monster we are up against as a society and take some manifest and decisive actions. This monster affects us all - prematurely in many cases, shortening healthy life span & productivity. Many of us are, living long –long life attributable to significant strides made in modern medicine. However, for many, the years in the long life are devoid of optimal health. At HealthySpan Wellness, we are resolute in our determination to confront this menace through our holistic wellness programs such as healthy weight loss program, that provide assistance in fighting such lifestyle disorders.

    Recent Articles

    Copyright © 2020 - 2021 HealthySpan Wellness Private Limited. All Rights Reserved. The HealthySpan word mark is a registered trademark of HealthySpan Wellness Private Limited in India and other countries. The HealthySpan with Device of “HS” is a registered trademark of HealthySpan Wellness Private Limited in India. Use of this Site is subject to express terms and conditions of use. By using this site, you proclaim that you agree to be bound by these Universal Terms and Conditions of Use.